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As an illustration, here are some candidate procedures for deciding about global system change. Various  recent handbooks on modes of global governance provide much more, but they do not mention noocracy,  epistocracy, sociocracy, sortition, citizens’ assemblies, juries, liquid democracy and the like.

Citizens’ Assemblies

A citizens’ assembly is a random (but stratified) sample of citizens who let themselves be informed by experts, deliberate, and decide about measures. However, the lack of mandate, time, and expertise can be an obstacle to proposing fundamental changes. International examples:

  • World Wide Views, in preparation for the Paris Agreement on combating climate collapse.[1]

  • GlobalAssembly [2] which organised a test of 100 people to address climate change with the help of local organizations and volunteers. A similar proposal was invited by the Global Challenges Foundation.[3]

[1] Bedsted, B.; Mathieu, Y.;  Leyrit, C. (eds.) (2015) World Wide Views on Climate and Energy,




Collaborative Editing

For example, Wikiversity for research:

Or Appropedia, which focuses on apparatus construction.


The People's Global Summit (June 29th-July 2nd 2022) No concrete measures.

Our Common Agenda (released sept. 14, 2021) by the secretary-general of the United Nations is the result of the consultation of over a million citizens (using a one-minute poll), more elaborate surveys in some 70 countries, “national and city governments, impact investors, young people, and civil society groups.” [1] The agenda offers no fundamental changes and ignores overpopulation. It focuses on carbon neutrality in 2050, bypassing the IPCC special report of 2018 and UN’s 2019 Emissions Gap Report.

The consultation was organized around twelve themes of the seventy-fifth anniversary declaration. The sources were anonymous experts, practitioners, and former leaders who sent “insightful” information. The Igarapé Institute had “breakfast dialogues” with “thought leaders” of whom there were over 1500, along with 1579 experts, while also academic institutions were consulted. Apparently, the scientific input was missing because “The U.N. is also expected to adopt a data-driven and evidence-based approach to implementing [‘Our Common Agenda’]. To accelerate action, [Guterres] is calling for the reestablishment of a scientific advisory board to advise the organization accordingly.” [2] The Igarapé institute does not clarify whether these scientists give advice on the procedures or on the content. In a special track for the youth, there has been deliberation, resulting in a report entitled Our Future Agenda, having e.g. educational targets.[3] The UN will also be upgraded along five dimensions, amongst which behavioural science (which comprises the UN family programme), but no further information is available at the site.[4] Finally, many more summits, reports, and committees are announced, such as the 2023 Summit of the Future, for which a preparation mentions intergovernmental processes and reform of the UN.[5].

[1] (See Annex)





Mechanism Design 

This is a branch of mathematics for creating or studying procedures (mathematical games and mechanisms) which stimulate participants (countries etc.) to cooperate and act truthfully.

Wood, P.J. (oct. 2010) Climate Change and Game Theory: a Mathematical Survey. Centre for Climate Economics & Policy, working paper 2.10.


General Assemblies

Such as the Technology Facilitation Mechanism of the United Nations, launched in item 70 of Transforming our World. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (A/RES/70/1).


Guidelines and Courses about the Process

 Such as  

  • Policy Design Guide by the Wellbeing Economy (WeAll) against climate change,[1]

  • Systems Change guide by NPC, primarily against ‘social harms’.[2]

  • Courses by the School of System Change.[3]

  • The Academy for System Change.[4]

  • Global System Change.[5]








Liquid Democracy

This is a system of stratified delegation. See, for example:

​Vision and Concept of Liquid Democracy

Gölz, P.; Kahng, A.; Mackenzie, S.; Procaccia, A.D. (2018) The Fluid Mechanics of Liquid

        Democracy, Web and Internet Economics, pp.188-202. Also: Lecture Notes in Computer

        Science, Vol. 11316. 

Bloembergen, D.; Grossi, D.; Lackner, M. (2018) On rational delegation in liquid democracy.

         Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI):

         Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence 33.


Parliament of Things

The constitution for a representation of all beings (spirited or not) is the 'task of scientists.'

Research Institutes

That is, those which may influence international decision-making. The topics investigated are actual measures and alternative deicision methods. Here is a not so arbitrary selection because one often refers to the other:


Templates are documents which only provide a structure, like headers, as proposed in the present project. Counter-examples of this are the Climate Emergency Resolution Template by the Climate Alliance, which does not qualify because it is a declaration of intent only. The Resolution Endorsing […] Safe Climate by the Climate Mobilization Project is no example either because it proposes a fundamental change in item 5 but is not concrete.


 Ready-Made Bills

The complete opposite of templates are ready-made bills to be passed by parliament, like the Climate and Ecological Emergency bill proposed by Extinction Rebellion. (In contrast, nothing fundamental is stated in the H.R.794 - Climate Emergency Act of 2021 for U.S. Congress.)

See the Climate Emergency: Toolkit for Cities[1] for details and for a reference to a list of cities, countries etcetera which have declared a climate emergency. Other sources are the Climate Emergency Mobilization Team[2] (‘Sierra Club’)


[2] /files/teams/documents/2020-09-30%20Template%20Resolution%20User%20Guide.pdf

World Federalism

Global governance based on subsidiarity, of which there are many proponents: 

Decision methods: examples

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